Thursday, December 17, 2015

Autosomal DNA Testing and Results- My Ancient And Recent Ancestral Origins

Harrison - Crider Ancestry
Fan Chart
My Direct Ancestors
6 Generations
Above Is My Simplified Compiled Family Tree Chart Based On My Own Research
(Chart Completed Using a Familysearch Tool)

In 2014 and 2015, I completed Autosomal DNA testing with two companies, Ancestry DNA and 23AndMe.  These tests reflect what my Autosomal DNA says about my geographic and ethnic ancestral origins on both the maternal and paternal sides of my tree. I will share a few screen shots from these reports, below.  This blog posts pertains only to those Autosomal DNA testing reports.

(Note: I had previously completed MtDNA testing for maternal ancestry only with Family Tree DNA.  A female can only be tested for MtDNA and Autosomal DNA. As for my paternal ancestry origins; a 4th cousin from my same paternal surname line who is a proven descendant of our common ancestor also provided his YDNA test results through Family Tree DNA and the Harrison Patriarchs Project, which is not the subject of this blog post and will be covered in another post). 

Ethnicity Estimates and Origins Map
Ancestry DNA
(based on my own Autosomal DNA sample and report)

The above map shows the overall ancient ancestral origins of my direct ancestors on both the maternal and paternal sides of my tree, based on my Autosomal DNA testing report completed using Ancestry DNA. The report and map retrieved in my results package online in 2015 indicates that my ancestral roots are 59% Western European, 29% from Ireland, and 5% from Great Britian; with 7% indicated as "Trace Regions". 

British Ancestry- England, Scotland, Wales 

The above map is a subsection of the first map, and reflects my own ancestral roots in England, Scotland and Wales based on my Autosomal DNA report with Ancestry DNA. The report states: "Results map shows 5% for my overall ancient British ancestral roots (England, Scotland, Wales), however this overlaps with the the Ireland ancestral roots map showing 29% overall roots (depending on the generation/ time period, some of that may fall under England, Scotland, or Wales). Primarily located in: England, Scotland, Wales. Also found in: Ireland, France, Germany, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Italy. "

The above map is a subsection of the first map, and reflects my Irish ancestry.  Ireland= 29% overall of my ancestral roots . Primarily located in: Ireland, Wales, Scotland Also found in: France, England.

The above map is a sub-section of the first map and relfects my overal Western European ancient ancestry, based on my Autosomal DNA test and report completed with Ancestry DNA.  Western European ancestry (ancient through more recent ancestry) = 59% of my overall ancestry. The report states "Countries include Scandanavia, Denmark, France, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Belgium. Population History: Prehistoric Western Europe- Due to its location and geography, Western Europe has seen many successive waves of immigrants throughout its history. Both peaceful intermingling and violent invasions of newcomers have resulted in a greater diversity in the genetics of the population, compared with neighboring regions. The first major migration into Western Europe is arguably the Neolithic expansion of farmers who came from the Middle East. From about 8,000 to 6,000 years ago these farmers filtered in through Turkey and brought with them wheat, cows and pigs. It is possible, too, that these people could have been the megalithic cultures who erected enormous stone monuments like the famous menhirs of Stonehenge. There were dozens, if not hundreds, of monuments scattered throughout prehistoric Europe, some serving as tombs, others possibly having astronomical significance. Photograph of Stonehenge taken in July 1877 by Philip Rupert Acott. Owned by Tamsin Titcomb. Celtic and Germanic tribes: Although “Celtic” is often associated with the people of Ireland and Scotland, the Celts emerged as a unique culture in central Europe more than 2,500 years ago. From an epicenter in what is now Austria, they spread and settled in the areas of today’s western Germany and eastern France, generally near the Rhine and Danube Rivers. By 450 B.C., their influence and Celtic languages had spread across most of western Europe, including the areas that are now France, the Iberian Peninsula and the British Isles. The Celts either conquered or assimilated the previous inhabitants of the area, and almost all languages and cultural and religious customs were replaced. The only exception, most scholars believe, is the Basque language, which managed to persist in the Pyrenees of southern France and northern Spain. In the early 4th century B.C., Celtic tribes in northern Italy invaded and sacked Rome, setting the stage for centuries of conflict. In the 5th century B.C., Germanic peoples began moving south, from Sweden, Denmark and northern Germany, displacing the Celts as they went. It is unclear what prompted their movement, but it may have been climate related, as they sought warmer weather and more fertile farmland. The Germanic tribes’ expansion was checked by the generals, Gaius Marius and Julius Caesar, as they approached the Roman provinces around 100 B.C. This map shows the expansion of Celtic tribes by 275 A.D. (in light green) from their presumed origin, the Bronze Age Hallstatt culture (in yellow). Dark green areas show regions where Celtic languages are still spoken today. The Romans: After Rome defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars, the Republic had extended its borders to include the entire Italian Peninsula, Carthage’s territories in North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, Greece and parts of Anatolia. It began turning its attention northwest toward the Celtic-dominated region known as Gaul, which more or less covered the area of modern-day France. Part of Rome’s motivation was to secure its frontier, as conflict with the Celts was a chronic problem. Julius Caesar led the campaign to conquer Gaul. A Celtic chieftain, Vercingetorix, assembled a confederation of tribes and mounted a resistance, but was defeated at the Battle of Alesia in 52 B.C. The battle effectively ended Celtic resistance. The Gauls were absorbed into the Roman Republic and became thoroughly assimilated into Roman culture, adopting the language, customs, governance and religion of the Empire. Many generals and even emperors were born in Gaul or came from Gallic families. Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar by Lionel Royer. For the most part, by 400 A.D., Western Europe was split between the Roman Empire and the restless Germanic tribes to the northeast. Celtic culture and influence still held sway in parts of the British Isles, and the Basque language continued to survive in the Pyrenees. It is interesting to note that the Basque share genetic similarities to the Celts of Ireland and Scotland, despite being culturally and linguistically dissimilar and geographically separated. While the exact relationship of the groups is difficult to determine, this does highlight the interesting interplay between genetic origin and ethno-linguistic identity. The Migration Period: By 400 A.D., the Roman Empire had been split into pieces. Rome was no longer the heart of the Empire, as the seat of power had been moved to Byzantium in the east. The Romans had begun to adopt Greek customs and language as well as Christianity, which had become the official state religion. Control of the provinces in the west had waned, and Rome itself was militarily weakened. About this time, there was a period of intensified human migration throughout Europe, called the Migration Period, or the V√∂lkerwanderung (“migration of peoples” in German). Many of the groups involved were Germanic tribes, whose expansion had previously been held in check by the Romans. To some degree, the earlier Germanic tribes of the Migration Period, notably the Goths and Vandals, were being pushed west and south by invasions from the Middle East and Central Asia. The Huns swept across eastern Europe, followed by the Avars, Slavs, Bulgars and Alans. These successive attacks may have been a factor in several waves of population displacement and resettlement. Seven large German-speaking tribes—the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards, Saxons and Franks—began pressing aggressively west into the Roman provinces and, in 410, the Visigoths attacked and sacked Rome. The western part of the Roman Empire was rapidly overrun as the invaders swept in, eventually dividing the remainder of the Roman provinces into new, Germanic kingdoms. An anachronistic 15th-century miniature depicting the sack of 410. The Frankish Kingdom- The Franks conquered northern Gaul in 486 A.D. and established an empire under the Merovingian kings, subjugating many of the other Germanic tribes. Over the course of almost four centuries, a succession of Frankish kings, including Clovis, Clothar, Pepin and Charlemagne, led campaigns that greatly expanded Frankish control over Western Europe. Charlemagne's kingdom covered almost all of France, most of today's Germany, Austria and northern Italy. On Christmas Day, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne “Emperor of the Romans.” This upset the Byzantine emperor, who saw himself as the sole ruler of the Roman Empire, but by 812, he was forced to accept Charlemagne as co-emperor. In 843, Charlemagne's grandsons divided the Frankish empire into three parts—one for each of them. Charles the Bald received the western portion, which later became France. Lothair received the central portion of the empire, called Middle Francia, which stretched from the North Sea to northern Italy. It included parts of eastern France, western Germany and the Low Countries. Louis the German received the eastern portion, which eventually became the high medieval Kingdom of Germany, the largest component of the Holy Roman Empire. Statue of Charlemagne, by Agostino Cornacchini (1725). Located at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican. Division of the Frankish Empire Among Charlemagne's Grandsons, 843 A.D. Charles the Bald Lothair Louis the German- Additional cultures of note: In addition to the Basque in the area of the Pyrenees in southern France, there are a number of other cultures with unique ethnic or linguistic identities in Western Europe. Among them are the Normans of northern France. Descended from Viking settlers who arrived sometime during the rule of the Frankish kings, the Normans controlled a powerful region known as Normandy. Their territories were subject to the French crown, which countenanced them in exchange for protecting the northern coast against other Viking raids. Just to the west of Normandy was Brittany, named after the Celtic Britons who arrived there from the British Isles in the 5th century. Some scholars believe that the migration may have been due to the Anglo-Saxon invasion of England after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Brittany resisted the Frankish kings and remained independent until 1532. It is one of the few places where Celtic languages are still spoken."

The above chart is from the Autosomal DNA Testing Report that I obtained on myself through the 23AndMe testing service.   While it breaks the results down a little differently than the Ancestry DNA report, the overall results are about the same as far as ancestral origins and regions/ percentages. I'm primarily Northwestern European in origin. 

The above map is from my 23AndMe report on my ancestral origins based on my Autosomal DNA sample provided in 2014, indicating that my ancestral roots are concentrated primarily in the blue and green sections on the above globe of the world (European ancestry). 

The above chart is the Chromosome View of my Ancestral Composition based on the report I obtained through the 23AndMe DNA testing service in 2014. 

All of the above information based on my actual DNA testing is very consistent with the results of my own "old school" research in tracing my family tree.   I have discovered that I have a significant amount of Scottish ancestry, some Irish ancestry, and deep roots in the rest of Northwestern Europe. I am aware from my research that I have lots of German and Swiss ancestry on the maternal side of my tree, as well as some French.   My paternal ancestors were mostly English, Scottish, and Irish with a sprinkling of French.